Interview Questions & Answers Complete Guide for SDLC Models & Architecture

What is the SDLC and how does it work?

SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) is the process of designing and developing a product or service to be delivered to a customer that is used in Information Technology or Hardware Organizations for software or systems projects. SDLC framework is helpful in delivering high-quality and efficient products or services to customers.

What Is The SDLC Process?
Software Development Life Cycle is abbreviated as SDLC. SDLC is a set of steps that provides a defined model for application development and lifecycle management.

Identify five SDLC models.

  • Waterfall model
  • Iterative model
  • Spiral model
  • Agile model
  • DevOps model

Explain the waterfall model’s phases.

The waterfall model has five main phases:

  • Gathering requirements
  • Design
  • Development
  • Testing
  • Implementation and upkeep or maintenance

What are the disadvantages of using the Waterfall model?
The waterfall model has a number of drawbacks, including the fact that it isn’t ideal for larger, more complex projects where the requirements aren’t well-documented and understood. It is not only difficult, but also impossible, to return to any stage or phase of the software development process. There will be no software product or service delivered until the very end of the Software Development Life Cycle, which is a form of risk. Testing can only be completed after the Development phase has been completed, and it cannot be done concurrently.

What is the significance of the design phase?

The requirements are written down in a document. It is then transformed into a logical structure that must be implemented using a particular programming language. It’s also a good idea to specify hardware and system requirements during the design phase. It also enables the creation of a complete system architecture. The output is intended to be a document that serves as an input for all of the SDLC phases that follow.

What tasks are carried out during the Coding phase?
The design document is converted into an executable programming language during the coding phase. The source code is the output of the coding stage, and it can be used as input for the testing and maintenance phases.

What is the definition of a feasibility study?

Feasibility analysis allows any organization to determine how viable software project development is. The software analyst conducts a thorough investigation to determine the project’s operational, economic, and technical viability.

What are the levels of maturity in CMM?

A benchmark for analysing the maturity of an organization’s software development process is the Capability Maturity Model. It’s a method for fine-tuning a company’s software development process. It is used to evaluate any company based on their Key Process Areas against a scale of five different levels. It describes the company’s maturity in terms of the projects it works on and the clients it serves.

The five levels that determine a company’s CMM levels are Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively Managed, and Optimizing.

In the SDLC, what is a V-shaped model?
The V-shaped model is an extension model, and testing will be scheduled ahead of time. The following are the various steps:

  • Planning
  • Requirements
  • Architecture
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Testing at the unit level
  • Integrity Checking
  • Acceptance and System Testing
  • Maintenance

What are the advantages of using the V model?

  • Simple and straightforward to use.
  • Each phase has its own set of requirements.
  • Because of the early development of test plans, the V model is more successful. Bug fixes are less expensive as a result of this.
  • When working on small projects with limited requirements, this method works best.

What does a project’s ‘scope’ entail?

The project’s scope consists of the project’s goals, objectives, and expectations. Software scope is a well-defined boundary that encompasses all processes involved in developing and delivering a software product. All functionalities and artefacts to be delivered to the software system are included in the software scope. The software scope also aids in determining what the system will and will not accomplish.

When should users be trained on a new system, in your opinion?
During the phase of implementation

What is the name of the phase in which the new system’s performance is monitored?
The system is constantly monitored during the Evolution and Maintenance phase.

What is a computer-based information system?
It is a system in which computers carry out certain tasks.

Explain SDLC in terms of low-level or detailed design.
High-Level Design is broken down into modules and programmes in Low-Level Design. Every programme will have its own logic design, which will be documented as programme specifications.

Explain the differences between the SDLC and the STLC.

The entire Verification and Validation of a Project is covered by the SDLC. Business requirement analysis, design, Development Process, Testing Process, and Maintenance are all part of the SDLC stage.

STLC, on the other hand, only involves Validation.

Who are the people involved in the Waterfall Model’s phases?

The waterfall model’s participants are determined by the organization’s structure. Professionals who are generally involved are listed here.

  • Analyst (business)
  • Senior Developers or Technical Managers
  • In the design phase, a technical lead or a system architect is needed.
  • Developers are in the process of coding.
  • In the testing phase, there are testers.
  • In the Maintenance phase, the Project Manager and the Maintenance Team

What is DFD at level 0?
Level 0 DFD is the highest abstraction level (Data Flow Diagram). It’s also referred to as context level DFD. It provides specifications for the entire information system in the form of a single diagram that contains all of the system’s details.

Explain the SDLC to the team through Requirement Gathering.
Gathering requirements is an important step in the SDLC. Business requirements are gathered at this stage. This phase also examines the project’s schedule and cost.

Briefly describe the testing phase.

Various testing methodologies are used to detect software bugs that arise during the previous phases. There are many different types of testing tools and methodologies available today. A few firs are also developing their own testing tools, which are tailored to their organisations’ needs.

What are the issues with the waterfall model?

The following are some of the most common issues encountered when using a waterfall model:

  • The waterfall model isn’t ideal for complex projects with ambiguous requirements.
  • Every stage takes a long time to complete.
  • There are a few bugs in this model that have never been fixed.

What is the name of the detailed analysis of the existing system?
The term “system analysis” refers to a thorough examination of the current system. Analyze the system

What is the primary goal of prototyping?
Prototyping provides a miniature version of the proposed system.

Early termination of a project can be done at which stage of the SDLC process?
Project termination can be done during the feasibility study phase of the SDLC process.

Which phase of the system life cycle do you think is the most creative and challenging?
One of the most difficult phases of the SDLC lifecycle is design.

Identify the type of feasibility in which the cost savings and additional profits will outweigh the required investment.
It’s called Economic Feasibility.

Is it possible to include software maintenance in bug fixes?

Yes, software maintenance is included in the bug fixes stage.

Which stage of the SDCL life cycle has the lowest cost of error correction?
At the early stages of requirement analysis, the cost of error correction is very low.

What are the benefits of using an agile model?

The following are some of the benefits of using the Agile model in the Software Development Life Cycle process:

  • It is easier to comprehend, use, and put into practice.
  • It has simple and straightforward deliverables that are scheduled on a regular basis using Sprints, ensuring frequent and high-quality deliverables.
  • It works well for both small and larger or more complex projects, resulting in high-quality project deliverables.

In the Agile model, what are the different phases?
Planning, Requirements, Analysis, Design, Coding, Unit Testing, System Integration Testing, Non-Functional Testing, and Acceptance Testing are the various phases involved in the Agile model. Any Agile boards, such as Scrum or Kanban, will be used to implement the Agile model. There will be several Sprints to complete, and all deliverables will be in the form of Story Points.

In SDLC, what are LLDs and HLDs?

The LLD (Low-Level Design) and HLD (High-Level Design) are used to analyse and understand the project from a high-level and low-level perspective to various types of team members and customers, depending on the person’s technical or business knowledge. The Low-level Design is a detailed design implementation which will be helpful in the development process for the Developers whereas the High-Level Design will be given by Architects to proceed with the development process initially. This will make it easier to understand the project by knowing or looking at it at a glance.

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