What are programming language?
We all know, to communicate with a person, we need a specific language, similarly to communicate with computers, programmers also need a language called Programming language.
A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of strings that produce various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. It is a set of instructions written in any specific language to perform a specific task. A programming language is mainly used to develop websites, desktop applications and mobile applications.
In simple terms, A programmin language is a computer language tat is used by the programmers to communicate with computers.
Types of programming language:-
- Low level language
- High level language
- Middle level language
- Low level language:- It is a machine dependent programming language written in 0s and 1s. We can run the low level language directly without the need of compiler or interpretor, so the programs written in low-level language can be run very fast.
Low-level language is further divided into two parts:-
- Machine Language
- Assembly Language
- Machine Language:- It is a type of low level programming language also known as machine code or object code. It is esier to read because it is normally displayed in binary or hexadecimal form. It doesn’t need any type of compiler or interpretor or any translator because it is directly understandable by the machine.
The advantage of machine language is that it helps the programmer to execute the program faster than nay type of high-level programming language.
2. Assembly language:- It is also a type of low-level programming language. It represent the set of intructions in a symbolic and human understandable form. It uses an assembler to convert the assembly language to machine language.
The advantage of this type of programming language is that it require less memory and less cxecution time to execute a program.
2. High-level programming language:- This type of programming language is developed for designing user friendly websites and software programs. This type of programming language uses compiler or interpretor to translate the program into machine language>
The main advatage of this type of programming language is that it is easy to read, write and maintain.
High level programming language includes Java, Python, C, C++, PHP, Perl, Lisp etc.
A high level programming language is further divided into three parts:-
i. Procedural Oriented Programming language:- This programming language is based upon procedure call concept derived form structured programming. It divides the programs into small procedures called routines or functions.
The main advantage of this type of programming language is that it helps programmers to easily track program flow and code can be reused in different parts of the program. Example:- C, FROTRAN, Pascal, etc.
ii. Object oriented Programming language(OOP):- This type of programming language is based upon the objects. In this programming language, programs are divided into small parts called objects. It is used for real world entities like inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, etc in the program to make the program reusable, efficient, and easy to use.
The main advantages of this type of programming language is that OOP is faster and easier to execute, modify and maintain. In this type of programming language debugging is also easy and fast. Example:-C++, Java, C# etc.
iii. Natural language:- This language is a part of human language such as English, Hindi, Russian, Japanese etc. It is used by machines to understand, manipulate, and interpret human’s language. This language is used for developers to perform tasks like translation, summarization, Named entity Recognition(NER), relationship extraction etc.
The main advantages of natural language is that it helps users to ask questions in any subject and directly respond within seconds.
3. Middle-level programming language:- This type of languages lies between low level programming language and high level programming language. It also known as the intermediate programming language and pseudo-language.
Advantages of these type of programming language is that it supports high level programming, it is user friendly, and closely related to machine language and human language. Example:- C, C++ etc.
List of the most in demand programming language:-
Python is an interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language. Python’s design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant indentation.
3. HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language):-
4. CSS(Cascading Style Sheets):-
Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system, or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system.
A NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. Such databases have existed since the late 1960s, but the name “NoSQL” was only coined in the early 21st century, triggered by the needs of Web 2.0 companies.
C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing static typing, strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming disciplines.
Rust is blazingly fast and memory-efficient: with no runtime or garbage collector, it can power performance-critical services, run on embedded devices, and easily integrate with other languages. Rust’s rich type system and ownership model guarantee memory-safety and thread-safety — enabling you to eliminate many classes of bugs at compile-time. Rust has great documentation, a friendly compiler with useful error messages, and top-notch tooling — an integrated package manager and build tool, smart multi-editor support with auto-completion and type inspections, an auto-formatter, and more.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. “Perl” refers to Perl 5, but from 2000 to 2019 it also referred to its redesigned “sister language”, Perl 6, before the latter’s name was officially changed to Raku in October 2019.
Go is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency.
The most popular programming language:-
Python is the most popular programming language in 2021. Python is a general purpose, Dynamic , high level and interpreated programming language. It supports object oriented approach. It is simple and easy to learn and provide lots of high-level data structures.
Advantages of Python programming language:-
- Easy to learn.
- Improved productivity
- Interpreated language
- Dynamically Typed
- Free and open source
- Vast libraries support
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