1- What is Laravel Framework?
Laravel is a free, open-source PHP web framework, created by Taylor Otwell and intended for the development of web applications following the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern.
2- What are the main differences between Laravel 4 and Laravel 5.x?
Summarizing Laravel 5.0 Release notes from the above article: 1. The old app/models directory has been entirely removed.
2. Controllers, middleware, and requests (a new type of class in Laravel 5.0) are now grouped under the app/Http directory.
3. A new app/Providers directory replaces the app/start files from previous versions of Laravel 4.x.
4. Application language files and views have been moved to the resources directory.
5. All major Laravel components implement interfaces which are located in the illuminate/contracts repository.
6. New route:cache Artisan command to drastically speed up the registration of your routes.
7. Laravel 5 now supports HTTP middleware, and the included authentication and CSRF “filters” have been converted to middleware.
8. you may now type-hint dependencies on controller methods.
9. User registration, authentication, and password reset controllers are now included out of the box, as well as simple corresponding views, which are located at resources/views/auth.
10. You may now define events as objects instead of simply using strings.
11. In addition to the queue job format supported in Laravel 4, Laravel 5 allows you to represent your queued jobs as simple command objects. These commands live in the app/Commands directory.
12. A database queue driver is now included in Laravel, providing a simple, local queue driver that requires no extra package installation beyond your database software.
13. Laravel command scheduler allows you to fluently and expressively define your command schedule within Laravel itself, and only a single Cron entry is needed on your server.
14. The php artisan tinker command now utilizes Psysh by Justin Hileman, a more robust REPL for PHP.
15. Laravel 5 now utilizes DotEnv by Vance Lucas.
16. Laravel Elixir, by Jeffrey Way, provides a fluent, expressive interface to compiling and concatenating your assets.
17. Laravel Socialite is an optional, Laravel 5.0+ compatible package that provides totally painless authentication with OAuth providers.
18. Laravel now includes the powerful Flysystem filesystem abstraction library, providing pain free integration with local, Amazon S3, and Rackspace cloud storage – all with one, unified and elegant API!
19. Laravel 5.0 introduces form requests, which extend the Illuminate\Foundation\Http\FormRequest class. These request objects can be combined with controller method injection to provide a boiler-plate free method of validating user input.
20. The Laravel 5 base controller now includes a ValidatesRequests trait. This trait provides a simple validate method to validate incoming requests.
3- What is routing and how, and what are the different ways to write it?
All Laravel routes are defined in your route files, which are located in the routes directory. These files are automatically loaded by the framework. The routes/web.php file defines routes that are for your web interface. These routes are assigned the web middleware group, which provides features like session state and CSRF protection. The routes in routes/api.php are stateless and are assigned the api middleware group. For most applications, you will begin by defining routes in your routes/web.php file.
4- What is Composer?
Composer is a dependency manager for PHP. Composer will manage the dependencies you require on a project by project basis. This means that Composer will pull in all the required libraries, dependencies and manage them all in one place
5- What is Laravel Eloquent?
The Eloquent ORM included with Laravel provides a beautiful, simple ActiveRecord implementation for working with your database. Each database table has a corresponding “Model” which is used to interact with that table. Models allow you to query for data in your tables, as well as insert new records into the table.
6- What is Luman?
Lumen is a new project from Laravel creator Taylor Otwell. It’s a “micro-framework”, meaning it’s a smaller, faster, leaner version of a full web application framework. It competes other popular micro-frameworks, Slim and Silex.
7- How to implement you own package in Laravel?
You can create a package in laravel using the following steps:
1. Package folder and name
2. Composer.json file for the package
3. Loading package via main composer.json and PSR-4
4. Creating a Service Provider
5. Create a Controller for your package
6. Create our Routes.php file
For more about how to build your own package in laravel visit: how to create a laravel 5 package in 10 easy steps
8- What is database migration? And how to use it to add insert initial data to database?
Migrations are like version control for your database, allowing your team to easily modify and share the application’s database schema. Migrations are typically paired with Laravel’s schema builder to easily build your application’s database schema. If you have ever had to tell a teammate to manually add a column to their local database schema, you’ve faced the problem that database migrations solve.
Laravel includes a simple method of seeding your database with test data using seed classes. All seed classes are stored in the database/seeds directory. Seed classes may have any name you wish, but probably should follow some sensible convention, such as UsersTableSeeder, etc. By default, a DatabaseSeeder class is defined for you. From this class, you may use the call method to run other seed classes, allowing you to control the seeding order.
9- What directories that need to be writable laravel installation?
After installing Laravel, you may need to configure some permissions. Directories within the storage and the bootstrap/cache directories should be writable by your web server or Laravel will not run. If you are using the Homestead virtual machine, these permissions should already be set.
10- What is HTTP middleware?
Middleware provides a convenient mechanism for filtering HTTP requests entering your application. For example, Laravel includes a middleware that verifies the user of your application is authenticated. If the user is not authenticated, the middleware will redirect the user to the login screen. However, if the user is authenticated, the middleware will allow the request to proceed further into the application.
Of course, additional middleware can be written to perform a variety of tasks besides authentication. A CORS middleware might be responsible for adding the proper headers to all responses leaving your application. A logging middleware might log all incoming requests to your application.
There are several middleware included in the Laravel framework, including middleware for authentication and CSRF protection. All of these middleware are located in the app/Http/Middleware directory.